Lift and Escalator

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Efficient Building Transport Systems

 

Elevators and escalators are efficient and convenient methods of transporting humans within buildings. Comparing elevators and escalators, the latter can ferry more people per hour, up to 12,000 persons per hour compared to elevators [1].

 

Elevators and Lifts – an Introduction

 

The modern lift was first designed in 1852 by Elisha Otis in New York [2]. Since then, modern lifts have come a long way with multiple enhanced safety features. Elevators represent an important component in high-rise buildings.

 

The function of the lift is two-fold; to transport humans safely and conveniently during normal conditions. Individuals with mobility impairment frequently need elevators to travel between floors. Lifts also function to transport firemen in the event of a fire occurring in a building.

 

Beyond the role of moving people, elevators also function to move goods Lifts designed to transport objects tend to have a larger interior lift cabin.

 

Types of Lifts

 

There are a plethora of lifts that exist in the market that serve various purposes. To note a few, there are small residential lifts that are fitted for bungalows. Residential lifts are usually machine-roomless.

 

There are also elevators that serve commercial offices and residential high-rise buildings. These elevators can ferry up to 35 passengers and move at a speed of 4 m/s. A machine room is usually required for this lift type.

 

In hospitals and warehouses, elevators are larger to transport hospital beds and industrial goods, respectively. These elevators can carry a maximum load of 4,000 kg at 1 m/s. Specifications may vary according to manufacturer.

 

When designing a lift with high foot traffic, it is crucial to perform a Lift Traffic Analysis to ensure that the elevators are adequately sized for the usage. This prevents building occupants from waiting more than 45 seconds for their lift to arrive during peak hours.

 

Lift Requirements in Malaysia

 

In Malaysia, all design, operating and installed lifts must have prior approval from JKKP (Jabatan Keselamatan Dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan Malaysia), also known as DOSH (The Department of Occupational Safety and Health).

 

Prior to the installation of goods hoist, technical drawings must be submitted to JKKP/DOSH Malaysia for approval. Technical recommendations such as dimensions, structural components, materials, etc. shall comply with the authority’s requirements.

 

According to Section 124 of UBBL 1984, for all non-residential buildings above 4 storeys above or below the main access level, at least one lift shall be provided [3].

 

As for the provision of BOMBA lift or Fire Lift, Section 243 of UBBL 1984 states the following [4]:

 

243. Fire lift.
(1) In a building where the top occupied floor is over 18.5 metres above the fire appliance access level fire lifts shall be provided.
(2) A penthouse occupying not more than 50% of the area of the floor immediately below shall be exempted from this measurement.
(3) The fire lifts shall be located within a separate protected shaft if it opens into a separate lobby.
(4) Fire lifts shall be provided at the rate of one lift in every group of lifts which discharge into the same protected enclosure or smoke lobby containing the rising main, provided that the fire lifts are located not more than 61 metres travel distance from the furthermost point of the floor.

 

Escalators – an introduction

 

Escalators available in the market include inclinations of 0° (also known as travelators) up until 35°. The velocities of modern escalators also range from 0.5-0.75 m/s. The control gears in escalators are less complex than that required for lifts as the motor runs continuously with less load variations [1].

 

Escalator Injury

 

Escalators are commonly found in shopping complexes, airports and train stations. They provide an efficient method of transporting large sums of people between floor levels. Escalators are cheaper to maintain and contain less complicated mechanical parts than elevators. Escalators that are not regularly maintained pose a harm to its riders. Children and senior citizens are the most prone demographic. These injuries arise from falling from the escalator or getting their hands or feet caught within the escalator steps.

 

Therefore, it is crucial for building operators to ensure that their escalators are maintained monthly to ensure the safety of its users.

 

Our M&E Consultant Solutions

 

As M&E consultants, our solutions for Lift and Escalator include:

 

  • Lift Traffic Analysis
  • Lift and Escalator Calculation and Design
  • Tender for Lift Services

 

Perunding JW is an M&E Consulting firm based in Malaysia. If you are looking for more information or resources, reach out to our team of engineers. We will gladly assist you. Visit our homepage or call us at +603 7955 5918.

 

References

[1] F. Hall and R. Greeno, BUILDING SERVICES HANDBOOK, 6th ed. Elsevier Limited, 2011.

[2] “Elisha Otis | American inventor”, Encyclopedia Britannica, 2022. [Online]. Available: https://www.britannica.com/biography/Elisha-Otis. [Accessed: 20- May- 2022].

[3] Street, Drainage And Building Act 1974 [ACT 133] Uniform Building By-Laws 1984, vol. 124. 1985.

[4] Street, Drainage And Building Act 1974 [ACT 133] Uniform Building By-Laws 1984, vol. 243. 1985.

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